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Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

What is RLS?

Restless legs syndrome is a sleep disorder. It causes unpleasant sensations in the legs, which are described as:

  • Creeping
  • Crawling
  • Tingling
  • Pulling

You usually have these sensations in the calf, but they may be felt anywhere from the thigh to the ankle. One or both of your legs may be affected. Some people may have the sensations in the arms. With RLS, you have an irresistible urge to move the affected limb when the sensations occur. Moving often briefly relieves the limb discomfort.

Sleep problems are common with RLS because of the difficulty it causes in getting to sleep. Severe daytime fatigue can also be a big problem.

What causes RLS?

The cause of RLS is still unknown. Some cases are believed to be inherited. Some cases have been linked with nerve damage in the legs due to diabetes, kidney problems, or alcoholism.

As many as 1 in 10 people in the U.S. may have RLS.

What are the symptoms of RLS?

Sensations occur when you lie down or sit for a prolonged time. This causes:

  • The need to move the legs for temporary relief of symptoms by:
    • Stretching or bending
    • Rubbing the legs
    • Tossing or turning in bed
    • Getting up and pacing
  • Worsening symptoms when lying down, especially when trying to fall asleep at night, or during other forms of inactivity, including just sitting
  • A tendency to feel the most discomfort late in the day and at night

How is RLS diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose RLS based on your signs and symptoms, a complete medical history, and a physical exam. In addition, tests, such as lab tests or a sleep study, may be done. Currently, there is not a definitive test to diagnose restless legs syndrome.

How is RLS treated?

Your doctor will consider your age, overall health and other factors when advising treatment for you.

Treatment options for restless legs syndrome may include:

  • Trying good sleep habits
  • Stopping activities that worsen symptoms
  • Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, which may worsen symptoms
  • Regular, moderate exercise
  • Maintaining a well-balanced diet
  • Treating underlying chronic conditions

Medications, including:

  • Dopaminergic agents (drugs that increase dopamine) which are largely used to treat Parkinson's disease
  • Benzodiazepines such as clonazepam and diazepam
  • Opioids such as codeine, propoxyphene, or oxycodone
  • Anticonvulsants such as gabapentin and pregabalin

Consult your doctor for more information regarding the treatment of restless legs syndrome.

Key Points

  • Restless legs syndrome is a sleep disorder that causes unpleasant sensations in the legs. The cause of RLS is still unknown.
  • With RLS, you have an irresistible urge to move the affected limb when the sensations occur.
  • Your doctor can diagnose RLS based on your signs and symptoms, a complete medical history, and a physical exam, but there is no definitive test to diagnose RLS.
  • Medicine and lifestyle changes can help relieve RSL symptoms.

Next steps

Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:

  • The name of the test or procedure
  • The reason you are having the test or procedure
  • What results to expect and what they mean
  • The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
  • What the possible side effects or complications are
  • When and where you are to have the test or procedure
  • Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
  • What would  happen if you did not have the test or procedure
  • Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
  • When and how will you get the results
  • Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
  • How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure
Online Medical Reviewer: Blaivas, Allen, J, DO
Online Medical Reviewer: Dozier, Tennille, RN, BSN, RDMS
Last Review Date: 3/18/2016
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